APRS iGate and ADS-B plane tracker

Building an APRS iGate and ADS-B plane tracker using Raspberry Pi and RTL SDR dongles

I have always been interested in SDR but never got a chance to really try it out. Luckily I was able to find a lot of resources on the Internet to get me started. A big thank you to all the open source contributors out there as I was able to build an APRS RX-only iGate and an ADS-B plane tracker very quickly.

Here are the items you would need:

  1. RaspberryPi
  2. 2 x RTL SDR dongles
  3. USB powered hub
  4. 4GB SD card
  5. Wifi dongle (optional)

I started with a newly prepared SD card. You can download RASPBIAN (Debian Wheezy) OS image from http://www.raspberrypi.org/downloads/ and then follow the instructions at http://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/installation/installing-images/README.md to write the image to the SD card.

Prepare the Raspberry Pi

Login to the raspberry pi and make sure that you have Internet connectivity.

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo raspi-config

A setup screen would be displayed when you run rasps-config. Using the setup screen expand the file system and configure your time zone.

It seems that the newest kernel includes a DVB driver for the dongle as a TV receiver. We do not require this for our purposed so we will create a config file to blacklist it.

cd /etc/modprobe.d
sudo nano blacklist-rtl.conf

Add the following lines to the new file:

blacklist dvb_usb_rtl28xxu
blacklist rtl2832
blacklist rtl2830

Install the dependencies

sudo apt-get install git git-core cmake build-essential libusb-1.0-0-dev
sudo apt-get install qt4-qmake libpulse-dev libx11-dev patch pulseaudio
sudo apt-get install libtool autoconf automake libfftw3-dev
sudo apt-get install python-pkg-resources pkg-config

Install RTL SDR driver

cd ~
git clone git://git.osmocom.org/rtl-sdr.git
cd rtl-sdr
mkdir build
cd build
cmake ../ -DDETACH_KERNEL_DRIVER=ON -DINSTALL_UDEV_RULES=ON
make
sudo make install
sudo ldconfig

At this point, you should be able to run the rtl_test command. The command would find the devices, display supported gain values, and do some sampling. It should report everything is okay.

Install multimonNG decoder

cd ~
git clone https://github.com/EliasOenal/multimonNG.git
cd multimonNG
mkdir build
cd build
qmake ../multimon-ng.pro
make
sudo make install

Install the kalibrate tool

Kalibrate, or kal, scans for GSM base stations in a given frequency band and uses GSM base stations to calculate the local oscillator frequency offset of the rtl-sdr devices.

cd ~
git clone https://github.com/asdil12/kalibrate-rtl.git
cd kalibrate-rtl
git checkout arm_memory
./bootstrap
./configure
make
sudo make install

With kal it is a two step process. We find a strong channel first.

kal -s GSM900

Once we have the strong channel number we can find the ppm.

kal -c 34 -v

I was not able to use kal reliably to find the ppm offset in my area and used SDR# to manually find the ppm value.

Install APRS iGate software

cd ~
git clone https://github.com/asdil12/pymultimonaprs.git
cd pymultimonaprs
sudo ln -s /usr/bin/python2.7 /usr/bin/python2
sudo python2 setup.py install

Configure the startup script

sudo cp pymultimonaprs.init /etc/init.d/pymultimonaprs
sudo chmod +x /etc/init.d/pymultimonaprs
sudo update-rc.d pymultimonaprs defaults

Generate APRS-IS password

cd ~/pymultimonaprs
./keygen.py CALLSIGN
Key for CALLSIGN: 12345

Update the pymultimonaprs configuration file with your callsign, passcode, gateway, freq, ppm, gain, lat, lng, and device index. Device index is important when multiple RTL SDR dongles are plugged in. Enter the index number of the dongle you would like to use with pymultimonaprs. You should be able to find the device index by using the rtl_test command.

sudo nano /etc/pymultimonaprs.json

Test and decode APRS packets

rtl_fm -d 0 -f 144390000 -s 22050 -p -103 -g 42.0 - | multimon-ng -a AFSK1200 -A -t raw -

I was not able to pick up any stations in my apartment on the ground floor. However, I was able to decode packets from my APRS device.

Start pymultimonaprs

sudo /etc/init.d/pymultimonaprs start

Install dump1090 to decode ADS-B transmissions from aircraft

Dump1090 is a simple Mode S decoder for RTLSDR devices

cd ~
git clone git://github.com/MalcolmRobb/dump1090.git
cd dump1090
make

Start dump1090

cd ~
cd dump1090
./dump1090 --net --aggressive --ppm 43 --device-index 1

References

  1. http://www.kubonweb.de/?p=130
  2. http://www.algissalys.com/index.php/amateur-radio/88-raspberry-pi-sdr-dongle-aprs-igate
  3. http://www.satsignal.eu/raspberry-pi/dump1090.html